‘The Disruptors’

What does Silicon Valley and Gender and Development have in common? The clue is in the title. That’s right, they both want to be seen as ‘disruptors‘. But the way that these actors in these very different fields approach this sense of disruption is worlds apart – just like them.

Jamie Bartlett in his two-part documentary ‘The Secrets of Silicon Valley’ BBC1

Let’s first take Silicon Valley. Home to some of the world’s largest tech and start-up companies, including HP, Apple and Google, and even Uber and AirBnB, these innovative companies are gradually revolutionising the way in which we behave in the world around us. As a species, humans have evolved in such a short space of time, from the agricultural revolution, the industrial revolution, to what many in this field are now calling the “technological revolution”. VR, wearable technology? We’re wholly and irrevocably immersed in it. It’s truly amazing how we put can be putting our potential into fruition. But to what cost? And more importantly, whose?

If you watched Jamie Bartlett’s two-part documentary ‘The Secrets of Silicon Valley’, perhaps you would be thinking twice about how much we are all investing not only our money into such technology, but our time, too. In the first part, also titled ‘The Disruptors’, Bartlett meets with CEOs from some of the largest companies mentioned, most of which have the mindset that the work they do is simply to find solutions to problems – not be part of the problem itself. For example, Uber, which was only created in 2009, was to solve the issue of having more convenient transportation for people to get from A to B. And along the way, this concept has evolved into reducing costs and carbon footprints. Now, operating in 633 cities across the world, this company has globalised. Watch Uber’s Co-Founder, Travis Kalanick give a Ted Talk on ‘Uber’s plans to get more people into fewer cars’:

However, as Bartlett found out, drivers who have signed on to Uber in countries such as India are having an excruciating time trying to manage their costs of owning such a mode of transport in such an economically-restricted country. Uber claims to set up schemes whereby individuals can be paying back the cost of the car in instalments, similar to that of microfinance or microlending, but this is just falling through, leading to gargantuan amounts of debt for such individuals.

This is much the same for individuals across the world wanting to sign on to AirBnB, where scandalous landlords are increasing the rent of homes at the expense of residents. Thus, places will only become cheaper for tourists to stay, but more expensive to actually live.

And then there is what is possibly the most common injustice. For tech companies requiring materials such as cobalt for their products, such as Apple, not only are there poor working conditions for factory workers, but young children in countries such as Congo are cobalt mining for the smartphones we generally take for granted.

So yes, you are “disruptors”, but your idea of creating a better world through the use of technology and innovative thinking is costly in so many more ways.

Sustainable Development Goal No. 5, dedicated to Gender Equality | Source: UNDP

On the flip side, let’s explore another group of disruptors: women in development. Over the past couple of weeks, I have been doing an online course on FutureLearn called ‘Gender and Development’ which, even if you don’t study development (or don’t study at all) is an extremely eye-opening short course to broaden your mind about issues regarding gender equality and women’s rights, and this is where I realised that women could also be considered ‘disruptors’.

When a woman is empowered, she can not only change her world but the world around her. She can attend school and receive a good education, which will enable her to find a good job. She’ll be conscious of family planning, and if she does decide to have children (and she will have the power to make such a decision), she will be able to raise them healthily and happily. This is what is explored in Sheryl WuDunn’s Ted Talk, which you can also watch down below.

The FutureLearn course also includes some wonderful resources and in one session, we focus on the World Bank and how their 2012 Development Report was dedicated entirely to Gender Equality and Development. And this is because gender equality matters in its own right.

Women all over the world are now taking on jobs that were once only considered for men. They are now participating in armed conflicts on the front line, for there cannot be sustainable peace from conflict without both genders participating and explaining the support they want and need. Likewise in Microfinance programmes in countries such as Bangladesh in South Asia, often it is the woman who will receive such loans, and should she invest this effectively, can enjoy the rewards of her work.

And while there is still a lack of women working in the sciences and technology, campaigns are underway to change this, or rather disrupt the status quo, such as the L’oreal-UNESCO for Women in Science campaign; the World Bank as already mentioned as well as Project Girl Code, a non-profit organisation which is “teaching digital literacy skills and providing IT training to girls and young women who are vulnerable to trafficking, slavery or forced marriage. We aim to prevent poverty and fight exploitation through education and technology.”

I think that before we start hyping over driver-less trains and trucks and even flying cars, surely we need to ensure that all women enjoy the same rights and status as men to drive these vehicles on land in the first place *cough* Saudi Arabia *cough*.

So with this in mind, which type of disruption are you more likely to support? I know which one I’m more likely to.


Profits over People

Profits over People

This headline could easily be used in a wide array of industries and sectors, but the one I want to pay close attention to is the Food Industry, in the notorious ‘Global Food Scandal’.

Every day of our lives, somehow we are wasting vast amounts of food, be it the rotting apple we don’t want to eat, to the end slices of a loaf of bread, which simply do not seem appealing enough to eat. But how and, more importantly, why have we become so fussy, and more to the point, so ignorant to the amount of food we have been wasting? This is in issue which has urked so many people for so many years, and it just so happens that the start of this year sparked an innate interest in myself to want to know more about food waste.

So, in keeping with a post I wrote at the start of this summer, where I pledged to be reading such weird and wonderful things throughout the holidays, one book I have been engrossed in is Tristam Stuart’s ‘WASTE: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal’.

Tristam Stuart’s ‘WASTE: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal’

Not even half way into the book, Tristam touches base with such interesting and thought-provoking ideas, regarding supermarkets and food product manufacturers, all of which are contributing to the global food waste scandal in gargantuan amounts. In fact, one business strategy shared by some supermarkets and restaurants in order to tap into the customer psyche, which I think is barbarically stupid, is that customers want to be seeing full shelves – empty shelves will mean that they will ultimately be buying products that other customers do not want (in other words, are not good enough for consumption). Customers want to feel that the products they want are forever available and will never run out. Well, I’m sorry to warn you, but the more food being produced, the less there will be to source. It’s simply not viable, and it’s certainly not sustainable. What’s worse, supermarket stock managers will often predict how much food will need to be ordered for a particular day, often getting this drastically WRONG and OVER-predicting, and so all the energy having gone into producing the food in manufacturing factories, let alone the FOOD itself, will inevitably and painfully be wasted. This is purely about profits over people.

“Profits over People”

My qualm lies with government laws and policies against allowing supermarkets and restaurants from being allowed to donate and redistribute all of their unsold food, something which Tristam has spent years researching and investigating in order to publish his findings all into this very fine book.

I would seriously invite you to pick up this book and read it if you want to understand and make even the smallest difference in order to reduce your waste. And in the mean time, to get an insight into some of Tristam’s work and what led him to uncovering the ‘Global Good Scandal’, watch this Ted Talk first, which led me to him:

Student Media: A ‘race’ to the bottom

Student Media: A ‘race’ to the bottom

Reading an article in the Metro today about diversity in the BBC, following their published list of their highest earners, it reminded me of this post I wrote earlier on in the year about diversity in student media. Clearly there are still inequalities, be it in student media or in the big old industry!

See Metro article: Metro article: https://www.metro.news/diversity-in-the-bbc-the-11-who-made-it-to-the-top/680354/


We are almost two decades into the 21st century and still we find that minority groups continue to be marginalised within mainstream media, often being misrepresented or unrepresented altogether. Which is worse?  Surely what is covered within the media is worth discussing (usually), but what about the stories of the voices which are left unexposed? Should they not bear an equal weight of importance, too? Why chose not to cover the struggles faced by black women and girls within Sub-Saharan Africa, but have expansive airtime of an anti-immigration, anti-global aid assistance and misogynistic (for good measure) president? These are complex questions which require much thought and discussion into the ways in which this normative ignorance within media reportage can possibly be improved.

17273547_10210733646792495_1512973016_o Hazel Healey from New Internationalist talks about community share

On Saturday 4 March, the ‘War of Words: Progressive Media Conference’ took place at my very own university…

View original post 1,530 more words

Grenfell: United We Stand

Grenfell: United We Stand

On June 14th, the lives of hundreds of people, thousands even, changed overnight. A fire, which attacked and seized all within reach, grew higher, attacked higher, seized higher, for hours on end, with little respect for future consequences. Some have called it ‘social cleansing’, others a mere accident. But in light of this, in light of what this tragedy represents, it also demonstrates the human solidarity and unity which collects itself; you shrug off the smoke and the ashes, and get back up to help others. To keep moving. To keep people living. To keep the faith. This is a photo essay about the Grenfell Tower fire, and how ‘United We Stand’.

Photo 1: Grenfell Tower from afar, burnt to a crisp but still standing

This photo of Grenfell Tower weeks on from the fire, taken from afar, is a bold and striking reminder of a fatal incident. You can see the building from miles away, and which is only really within walking distance from Latymer Road Underground Station, West London. Location is a particularly significant part of this puzzle. This piece of wounded architecture standing tightly in the borough of Kensington and Chelsea seems to represent the inequality within the area between working-class people and those with power and authority; those who have the power to make decisions – which are clearly not always well-thought through. More so, just around the corner are wealthier, middle-income earning individuals and celebrities, which only has led to people theorising over the concept of ‘social cleansing’, which, while I believe this to be a horrible use of language, can only be deemed as a possible explanation given the contemporary climate. Within a developed country in the world, who would have thought that this would be possible?

Photo 2: Photos of missing peoples stuck onto a door of the Nottinghill Methodist Church

These are the faces of the individuals, whose whereabouts are still unknown. Families are being separated, with both young and older people still missing. Police are keeping the death toll at around 80, but people are not stupid. There are so many questions to ask, and so few people willing to answer them.

Photo 3: Among flowers, notes and candles is a child’s toy

All around the neighbouring area are candles, notes and flowers scattered to mark the loss of a loved one, or from those hoping that more are still alive. But in the centre of this photo is a children’s toy, ‘Eeyore’, a well-known character, taken from a well-loved children’s story, ‘Winnie-the-Pooh’. I loved Winnie-the-Pooh when I was younger, so to have this symbolise a child’s life either sacrificed or still missing, only honed in the harsh reality of this fateful incident even more so. Very, very young children have lost their lives to this, with the world missing out on what they could have seen, been and done.

Photo 4: A Liverpool scarf is hung onto the gates by Nottinghill Methodist Church

This fourth photo I thought was very interesting. It both resembles this sense of unity and support from the local, national and international community, but it also reminds me of the Hillsborough disaster in 1989. In an article I read in the New York Times a week before taking these photographs, I found that there are some harrowing similarities between this historical disaster and Grenfell. Both young and working-class people were victims of poor decision-making on behalf of authoritative powers (do I hear social-cleansing again?). And these so-called authorities seemed to blame the incident, which was a semi-final match taking place at Hillsborough Stadium in Liverpool, on those aforementioned ‘rowdy’ young and working class. Let’s just hope that it doesn’t take almost another 30 years for a thorough inquiry to be published, let alone a genuine apology.

Photo 5: Signs are displayed to voice the injustice faced by Grenfell Tower victims

People want their voices heard. There is so much loss, uncertainty, anger…

Photo 6: A star hangs on a gate, with the slogan ‘United We Stand’

… and hope. This last photo I thought I would save for the end of this photo essay to reiterate just how strongly people come together in times of despair, whether its an incident like Manchester, Finsbury Park, London Bridge or Grenfell. The peace, the love, the harmony – it’s all wrapped up within this one symbol, which serves as a sign that while Grenfell tower still stands, albeit for some time, so will we.


I am currently working on a video I filmed about these tributes to Grenfell Tower victims, including shots of people that are still missing. A friend will also be composing original music for this short video. We hope to edit and publish this as soon as.

Trump, you troublesome troll, who will bridge the gap now?

The man who is prepared to cut US foreign aid in developing countries, particularly in areas of family planing, who I hope knowingly leads to various catastrophic consequences, goes by a name none other than Donald Trump.

Indeed, this isn’t a character assassination as such, but more of a rant on one singular man’s poor political decision-making

The problem: According to articles published in The Guardian today, and in the last few days, his actions include: planned budget cuts (having already decided to cut ObamaCare), and adopting a sterner approach towards the ‘Global Gag’ rule (otherwise known as the Mexico City rule), which, for those of you who are not familiar, ‘requires NGOs to certify that they will not perform or promote abortions anywhere in the world as a condition for receiving US family planning funds’. Those of which who refuse to sign will be denied access to health assistance, such as for HIV, TB and malaria programmes, and nutrition.

The ‘Global Gag’ rule will lead to an amalgamation of catastrophic consequences, particularly for NGOs who promote sexual and reproductive rights, and who are tackling high demands for abortion. However, in countries such as the Philippines, a country which is 78% Catholic, abortion is not allowed under the eyes of the law, nor the Catholic Church. Emergency contraception is not an option, not even for rape victims.

As a result, this leads to clandestine and unsafe abortions. In a documentary, also produced and edited by The Guardian, it was noted that 610,000 abortions occur each year in the Philippines, of which 3 women die every day due to unsafe circumstances. I ask you, Trump, is this really the reality you intend on enforcing?

It’s torture. Pure torture.

Women are having their abdomens punched and kicked; having barbecue sticks inserted into their vaginas in order to potentially puncture the fetus, all for a lack of funding – which had previously seen progress in population control.

This is true in the case of Nigeria, which now poses risks of a population boom as a result of the ‘Global Gag’ rule. ‘Cuts to US foreign aid enacted by the US administration mean that supplies of contraception are dwindling in Nigerian family planning services.’ As a result, this means that Nigeria is set to overtake the US in becoming the third largest country by 2050, just after India and China. Philippines will be 13th.

Contraception, you may suggest? Well, as ideal as this sounds, contraception is majoratively inaccessible, and individuals also choose to not take it for a variety of reasons. In the Philippines, 65% of women don’t use contraception. This is because of a fear of side-effects, lack of knowledge, and even embarrassment (in asking parents for contraception, such as condoms or the pill). Children as young as 12 and 13 are considering having sexual intercourse, and end up becoming pregnant due to the stigma of being deemed sexually promiscuous, as well as the fact that schools don’t have sex-education/contraception sessions.

The wider problem: Women do not have the choice in controlling their own bodies – governments and patriarchy do. Women are seen as second-class citizens in many developing countries. This is leading to many problems, including both deaths and population increase at the same time.

The debate: Understandably, many countries are against abortion because of societal norms, traditions, and culture, stemming from their religious beliefs and values. This is certainly the case in the Philippines. Yet, women should not want to seek abortions, should they have the materials, resources and support in place in order to plan their pregnancies more effectively and carefully. However, with lack of access or even knowledge of contraception, most of which is because of a LACK OF FUNDING, how are women practically meant to get themselves out of this vicious circle they call day-to-day reality? Trump, I ask you again, who will bridge the gap now?

Solutions… Fortunately, there are some individuals who, collectively, want to implement further sustainable family planning. Starting with Melinda Gates from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), along with the UK Department for International Development (DIFD) and the United Nations Population Fund, UNFPA, together they have co-hosted summit in London, where Gates will announce a big funding increase for family planning. However, this is still not enough.

If we want to see a world with a sustainably controlled population growth, and lack of ‘botched’, tortuous abortions, we need to have the world’s most powerful coming together to tackle these challenges. Rather than diverting funds towards waging wars, or spending half of your time on Twitter feuds, why not target your time and money towards allowing women to have more control over their bodies. This may be asking for a lot, but certainly and most positively when a woman is empowered, her whole family (or planned family) is, too. Think about it. I dare you, Trump, just think.


Here are the number of articles I refer to in this post:




Gender Trouble

Gender Trouble

Hairy calves standing boldly under a leather skirt; a flat chest under a fish-net vest; a woman dressed in a suit. Is this masculine enough? Too feminine? Heterosexual? Homosexual? Whether there are any such explanations which can actually answer such heavy questions, this is the work of Anna Sampson, photographer, whose photographs challenge the notions of gender identity.

Outside Doomed Gallery, Ridley Road Market

Hidden away and almost out of sight near the bottom of Ridley Road Market – closest station, Dalston Kingsland – it’s all too easy to innocently walk past (much like I did) Doomed Gallery, where Sampson, London-based photographer, is showcasing her photographs.

Various photographs taken from Sampson’s series of photographs

Sampson graduated from Chelsea College of Arts in BA Fine Art, where her central work was on her series of portraits called ‘Gender Trouble’. Taken from the event page on ArtRabbit, the exhibition is described as: “Shot over the past two years, her images posit a suggestion that true feminism requires real equality – and that there should be no hierarchy between the sexes. By merging and blurring gender clichés and stereotypes, Anna seeks to free gender from its bipolar shackles, supporting Judith Butler’s argument by demonstrating that gender, like sexuality, is fluid and non-binary.”

Spectator’s admire Sampson’s work

Getting her friends to dress up in alternative clothing, such as men in fish-net stockings, and women in a full shirt and trousers, her work is supposedly meant to challenge the confines of gender. Clothes do not necessarily have to define an individual’s gender, surely? If a woman chooses to wear a pair of trousers, or a man wear a skirt, this doesn’t mean that she is any less feminine, nor is he any less masculine. This is a key message, which seeps through her photographs: gender is simply a social construct.

Coincided with this is a photograph of two men kissing, and the intimacy captured between a woman and another woman; Sampson’s photographs also challenge the dimensions of sexuality. Inspired by the work of Judith Butler, philosopher and gender-theorist, Sampson’s exhibition illustrates the theory that gender does not directly correlate with sexuality. By this, I am suggesting that a male, who has a more feminine demeanour does not necessarily have to be homosexual because he appears “less of man” to be heterosexual, in the same way that a more ‘masculine’ woman, who may be more “butch” and less interested in clothes shopping, or getting their nails done has to be deemed a lesbian. As aforementioned, these are simply socially constructed. As Judith Butler famously theorised, these dimensions are fluid.

Inside the Doomed Gallery exhibition space

The exhibition space is small and minimalist, yet intimate, which I felt was somewhat symbolic of the nature of the work. The enclosed environment makes the message all the more hard-hitting and inescapable, which I think is only necessary in this day and age, whereby individuals should have the freedom to express themselves in any way they feel fit, regardless of gender, sexuality, or any other socially-defining entity, which is why you should experience it for yourself.

“Shot over the past two years, her images posit a suggestion that true feminism requires real equality – and that there should be no hierarchy between the sexes. By merging and blurring gender clichés and stereotypes, Anna seeks to free gender from its bipolar shackles, supporting Judith Butler’s argument by demonstrating that gender, like sexuality, is fluid and non-binary.”

What makes this exhibition all the more enticing is the fact that it is only on for four days. I visited it last night, with its opening day on Thursday. Which means that tomorrow is the last day that you can attend, so do if you can!

Personally I find studying Gender to be incredibly interesting, in many contexts, particularly in Development. This summer, I have an internship with a new organisation called SecurityWomen, which advocates for a 50:50 gender balance in the security sector – that is, to have more women working in the armed forces, military, police and decision-making roles. And the research I am doing into this is simply eye-opening. For example, in conversations with the director of SecurityWomen, it became known to me that there is a correlation whereby countries which have women in these roles tend to have less conflict. Hence why, rather than advocating for more violence, this can contribute towards keeping peace and peace-building. While this is not the crux of this post, I will surely be talking about this in a later one!

Small and unassuming, yet intimate and inescapable

To explore Sampson’s work in more depth, read this interview from online magazine Kaltblut, which explains her views on challenging gender stereotypes, and answers questions such as why she mostly shoots in black and white.

While only short and almost unassuming, the subject of the photographs is far from it, with a deeper meaning behind. In my view, it is not simply a cultural norm to be able to live the way you want to, or dress in the way you believe expresses you best, despite it flouting certain gender norms, but a personal freedom – a human right. So do try and attend the exhibition tomorrow if possible, since it’s the last showing. It’s important, it’s relevant, it’s true. And it’s far from being trouble-free.

The gallery is open from 12pm-8pm tomorrow, and is completely FREE to attend. Here is the link to the exhibition page to find out more:



Garment Workers’ Rights

Garment Workers’ Rights

Poor working conditions for workers in South Asia and South-East Asia are not new phenomenon. With long hours, in high temperatures, low wages and little to no breaks, this is hardly any different from slave labour. While a lot of the literature on this area of employment is interesting, it certainly reveals some of the harsh realities mentioned, which workers, particularly garment workers, who produce the clothes supplied by household names, such as Nike, Primark and Monsoon, have to face on a daily basis.

The following image depicts a handful of informative booklets I picked up when popping into Traid, which is a charity dedicated to reducing the waste from the clothes that we buy and wear – to stop them from being thrown away. I love their mission, aims and values, as they not only advocate towards reducing clothes waste, but also funds projects to campaign for and empower workers to know their rights, and improve their working conditions. Check out their website to find out more.

Booklets produced by Traid covering poverty and workers’ rights

What has inspired this particular blog post is an article I read in The Guardian this week. It reminded me of a piece which I wrote and published in my university’s student newspaper: Concrete. It describes some of the changes I have noticed in myself regarding the injustices in the world, which I have learnt about in my first year of studying International Development, and how my way of thinking and being has slowly evolved. You  can read the full Guardian article by clicking on the link below, and read on to find my original piece:



How my Degree is Reshaping Who I Am

Chloe Howcroft


I’m a first year undergraduate in the school of International Development, with my second year now fast approaching. A common motif within my field of study is change, which can sometimes be perceived as a pleasant experience in some communities yet, more often than not, is detrimental for others. And while I find many aspects of studying International Development incredibly fascinating, I do think that the most noteworthy of all is its subtle ability to gradually change one’s worldview. This is an account of how my degree is already reshaping who I am.

I began to notice a change somewhere within the first few weeks of the course, when the realities of being a ‘fresher’ at university reigned in. I felt excited. The soft haze of summer just gone was slowly slipping away, and I was beginning to settle into university life. However, I also felt something else. I felt disgust. Sitting in a politics lecture, I was learning about the ‘politics of production’, which, to my understanding, is the study of power relations within each strand of the supply chain, from the factory floor on an operational level, to a more decision-making level from (majoratively) Western retailers, such as the likes of Tesco, Monsoon, and Nike, to name but a few. And Primark. The collapse of the Rana Plaza building near Dhaka, Bangladesh, some four years ago today, which accommodated a number of garment factories for retailers including Primark, was used as a case study to illustrate the inequalities among the supply chain. More than one thousand garment workers died in this unnatural disaster.

When this occurred, I was still in high school, only vaguely aware of such global development issues. In fact, I frequently shopped at Primark, knowing that I would practically be buying a whole new wardrobe at a ridiculously low price. But fast-forward a few years later, and I now cannot fathom walking into such a store; simply walking past one makes me squirm. In this way, my degree makes me question the clothes and other products I buy and wear from certain retailers, for I am now more conscious of broader structural inequalities. If anything, I much prefer traipsing around car boot-sales or charity shops at the very least.

Along the same vein, another retailer that crops up more often than not is Apple. Almost all students in DEV appear to own an iPhone – an observation which, admittedly, somewhat surprises me. Now the last thing I want to do is cast judgements on others’ choice of mobile phone device, but it is far from unknown that iPhones are an overstated, superficial fashion trend. Apple (or rather, Foxconn), also have their own ethical issues, namely poor working conditions, which have led to several cases of suicide, hence my disillusionment in finding so many DEV students with a phone that not only reproduces inequalities in labour conditions and the capitalist system, but is also unnecessarily pricey. I thought that DEV students encouraged sustainability and ethical living, not superficiality and consumerism.

Furthermore, my degree has altered the types of food I consume. If there is one thing that DEV students also have in common, it’s vegetarianism or veganism – and everything else in between. Though I am not a self-proclaimed veggie (as of yet), I am certainly advancing towards the lifestyle. My consumption of meat has decreased considerably since being at university, which probably has a lot to do with the fact that Norwich seems to be a Vegan haven (or could it be watching a certain DiCaprio movie on climate action, I wonder?) I rarely buy meat in my weekly shop, and if I feel tempted, I usually buy substitutes of Quorn or succulent Linda McCartney sausages. Such good food.

Finally, my degree has invigorated my interests in learning more about other religions and beliefs. Recently, I took part in an introductory course into Buddhism, where I had an overview of several Buddhist teachings and values, most of which resonate with my own interests in practicing mindfulness and interconnectivity. This not only helps with self-development and growth, but also is an insight into other cultures in the Far East and South, which predominantly practice Buddhism, namely China, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. These countries are where I only dream of travelling to, and doing potential development work. Thus, learning about other cultures is a large part of why I love studying International Development.

I don’t mean to sound like a cynical, judgemental nag, but I do strongly believe that your degree, or whatever you do, should have some influence in the choices you make in your life. Next time you find yourself in a store like Primark, think about the effort that has gone into producing yet another ridiculously cheap top. In fact, think about why it is so cheap.